0 Forex currencies quotation system

Currencies are quoted in pairs, for example – EUR/USD or USD/JPY.
The first currency in the pair is called the base currency and the second is called the counter currency.
The base currency is the ‘bases for purchases and sales.

For example,
if you buy EUR/USD, then you acquire Euros and sell Dollars. You do this if you expect the Euro to grow against the Dollar.
It is also possible for a currency pair to be quoted as USD/EUR, but this method is used extremely rarely.
Each transaction must have 2 sides – a buy and a sell (or a sell and a buy).
By this we mean that it is impossible to buy 100.000 EUR/USD and then exchange it for another currency pair (i.e.: EUR/JPY) without closing the first position.
Also please note that no physical currency delivery will be made. For these purposes banks and exchange companies, which specialize in low-rate currency conversions are available.

0 How does the B/S system work?

As with any market, for each currency pair, there are 2 prices. The difference between them is called the spread.
The spread is measured in points or pips – lowest decimal figure in a currency rate.
For a EURUSD a pip equals 0.0001 (or 10 dollars on 100.000), for EURJPY a pip equals 0.01 (or 1000 yen on 100.000).

0 How Forex work?

Forex market allows you to buy and sell currencies against each other and speculate on the differences in exchange rates

Making a transaction on the Forex Market is simple:

The procedures are identical to that of any other market so switching to trading currencies is straightforward for most traders.

Buying/Selling - B/S

If you want to open a position (i.e.: place an order to sell – to make a profit if the exchange rate falls) you have to choose the amount (i.e.: 100.000 EURUSD) from the drop down menu on the platform and then click the mouse on the sell currency button: SELL (if you want to place an order to buy, you should act in reverse).
This will open a position in the market and you will receive an immediate notification of it on your trading station.
To close an open position, you have to do the opposite of the initial operation – in our case buy the 100.000 EURUSD back.

0 Foreign Exchange, FX Definition of Forex

The Forex is the largest marketplace in the world with than 1.8 trillion dollars changing hands daily and so making it one of the most attractive and lucrative markets.

forex trading services for traders wanting to make speculative transactions on the exchange rate between two currencies.
These rates may be influenced by world economic and political events, currency rate differentials, as well as many other factors including extreme weather conditions (hurricanes), acts of terror etc.

0 Intangible assets

Intangible assets lack physical substance and usually are very hard to evaluate. They include patents, copyrights, franchises, goodwill, trademarks, trade names, etc. These assets are (according to US GAAP) amortized to expense over 5 to 40 years with the exception of goodwill.

Websites are treated differently in different countries and may fall under either tangible or intangible assets.

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0 Intangible assets

Intangible assets lack physical substance and usually are very hard to evaluate. They include patents, copyrights, franchises, goodwill, trademarks, trade names, etc. These assets are (according to US GAAP) amortized to expense over 5 to 40 years with the exception of goodwill.

Websites are treated differently in different countries and may fall under either tangible or intangible assets.

0 Fixed assets

Also referred to as PPE (property, plant, and equipment), or tangible assets, these are purchased for continued and long-term use in earning profit in a business. This group includes land, buildings, machinery, furniture, tools, and certain wasting resources e.g., timberland and minerals. They are written off against profits over their anticipated life by charging depreciation expenses (with exception of land). Accumulated depreciation is shown in the face of the balance sheet or in the notes.

These are also called capital assets in management accounting

0 Long-term investments

Often referred to simply as "investments". Long-term investments are to be held for many years and are not intended to be disposed in the near future. This group usually consists of four types of investments:

Investments in securities, such as bonds, common stock, or long-term notes.
Investments in fixed assets not used in operations (e.g., land held for sale).
Investments in special funds (e.g., sinking funds or pension funds).
Investments in subsidiaries or affiliated companies.
Different forms of insurance may also be treated as long term investmen

0 Current assets

Current assets are cash and other assets expected to be converted to cash, sold, or consumed either in a year or in the operating cycle. These assets are continually turned over in the course of a business during normal business activity. There are 5 major items included into current assets:

Cash and cash equivalents — it is the most liquid asset, which includes currency, deposit accounts, and negotiable instruments (e.g., money orders, cheque, bank drafts).
Short-term investments — include securities bought and held for sale in the near future to generate income on short-term price differences (trading securities).
Receivables — usually reported as net of allowance for uncollectable accounts.
Inventory — trading these assets is a normal business of a company. The inventory value reported on the balance sheet is usually the historical cost or fair market value, whichever is lower. This is known as the "lower of cost or market" rule.
Prepaid expenses — these are expenses paid in cash and recorded as assets before they are used or consumed (a common example is insurance). See also adjusting entries

0 Asset characteristics

Assets have three essential characteristics:

The probable future benefit involves a capacity, singly or in combination with other assets, in the case of profit oriented enterprises, to contribute directly or indirectly to future net cash flows, and, in the case of not-for-profit organizations, to provide services;
The entity can control access to the benefit;
The transaction or event giving rise to the entity's right to, or control of, the benefit has already occurred.
It is not necessary, in the financial accounting sense of the term, for control of assets to the benefit to be legally enforceable for a resource to be an asset, provided the entity can control its use by other means.

It is important to understand that in an accounting sense an asset is not the same as ownership. In accounting, ownership is described by the term "equity," (see the related term shareholders' equity). Assets are equal to "equity" plus "liabilities."

The accounting equation relates assets, liabilities, and owner's equity:

Assets = Liabilities + Owners' Equity
The accounting equation is the mathematical structure of the balance sheet.

Assets are usually listed on the balance sheet. It has a normal balance, or usual balance, of debit (i.e., asset account amounts appear on the left side of a ledger).

Similarly, in economics an asset is any form in which wealth can be held.

Probably the most accepted accounting definition of asset is the one used by the International Accounting Standards Board [1]. The following is a quotation from the IFRS Framework: "An asset is a resource controlled by the enterprise as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the enterprise."

Assets are formally controlled and managed within larger organizations via the use of asset tracking tools. These monitor the purchasing, upgrading, servicing, licensing, disposal etc., of both physical and non-physical assets.

0 Asset

In business and accounting, assets are everything owned by a person or company (all tangible and intangible property) that can be converted into cash [1]. Since this includes intangible valuables such as stocks and accounts and notes receivable, whose cash value is not clear until they are sold, assets can also be defined as a probable future economic benefit obtained or controlled by a person or company as a result of a past transaction or event.

0 Unsecured loan

An unsecured loan is a loan that is not backed by collateral. Also known as a signature loan or personal loan.

Unsecured loans are based solely upon the borrower's credit rating. As a result, they are often much more difficult to get than a secured loan, which also factors in the borrower's income. An unsecured loan is considered much cheaper and carries less risk to the borrower.[1] However, when an unsecured loan is granted, it does not necessarily have to be based on a credit score. For example, if your friend lends you money without any collateral, meaning something of worth that can be repossessed if the loan isn't repaid, then your credit score has zero to do with it, but rather the value of your friendship is at stake. Therefore the real meaning of an unsecured loan is that it is not backed by any object of value and is lent to you based on your good name. For financial institutional purposes, they may want to look at your credit score because they are not your friend and it is strictly a business transaction, therefore your good name may be associated with your historical payment history on prior debt, reflecting in your credit score. There are three types of unsecured loans. First there is a personal unsecured loan, meaning a loan that you individually are responsible for the repayment of, second is an unsecured business loan which leaves the business responsible for the repayment, and finally there is an unsecured business loan with a personal guarantee. With the latter, although the borrower is the business, you as an individual will be the payer of last resort if the business defaults on the loan


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